An Introduction to Central Europe: History, Culture, and Politics (UNDERGRADUATE SEMINAR ONLY)

Academic year: 
Academic year: 
Start and end dates: 
17 Sep 2009
Co-hosting Unit(s) [if applicable]: 
Department of History
Constantin Iordachi
Additional information: 
The course assesses the epistemological status and academic relevance of area studies, and underscores mechanisms of nation- and state-building and modernization employed in ethnically-mixed areas, characterized by multiple, fluid and overlapping identities. By promoting an integrative historical perspective, it exposes the prevailing tendency of essentializing the experience of European historical regions such as “the West,” “Central Europe,” or “the Balkans.” It relativises Western “exceptionalism” and Balkan “distinctiveness,” de-emphasizing the practice of national-centered history writing in favor of relational and transnational approaches. The course is made up of twenty-four classes (one hour and forty minutes each), and is divided into two modules of twelve classes. The first module provides a basic overview of the historical, cultural and geographical identity of Central Europe from 1815 to the fall of communism in 1989, in view of several central analytical categories, such as nationalism, ethnicity, and social change. The second module examines contemporary issues facing the region, namely the purported end of economic and political transformations, ethnic conflict in the Balkans, the enlargement of the EU to East European applicant states, and the role of international organizations in the region. Students may enroll either for the first module for two credits, or for both modules for four credits.
Assessment : 
Students are expected to attend all seminars, read the assigned readings and prepare to actively participate in seminar discussions. The requirements and grading breakdown of the seminar are as follows: * Active seminar participation (25 percent); * Seminar Presentation (25 percent); * Final essay (50 percent): 2-credit option: A final essay of approximately 2.000 words will be due two weeks after the final seminar for Part I. Students can choose one of three possible essay topics that will be announced by the instructor. Each essay will require that students incorporate topics and readings from the first section of the course. No additional research is required beyond the assigned readings, although students are encouraged to consult certain suggested readings for their general academic background. 4-credit option: A more substantial research essay of approximately 4.000 words will be due at the end of the semester, with topics chosen in consultation with the instructor. Some additional research (drawing in the first instance on the suggested readings) will be expected.

Part One of the course (classes one to twelve) focuses on the socio-political evolution and cultural development of the Central European territories of the Habsburg Monarchy, the Southeastern European territories of the Ottoman Empire, the Eastern territories under Tzarist jurisdiction, and the successor states that replaced the three empires in the twentieth century. Topics include the Ottoman, Habsburg and Tzarist legacies, modernization and nation-building, war and socio-political change, the rise of fascism, the Holocaust, and the main features of communism in Central Europe.

The introductory class explores the intellectual history and ideological connotations of the concepts of “Central Europe” “Eastern Europe” and “the Balkans”, and their utilization in constructing mental maps and “symbolic geographies.” Class two examines, in a comparative perspective, how the Habsburg, Ottoman and Tzarist Empires coped with the rise of nationalism, industrialism, and mass politics. It explores the Habsburg Monarchy's strengths and weaknesses as it responded to internal and external challenges from 1815 to 1918; the peculiar socio-political and administrative organization of the Ottoman Empire, marked by the millet system and the reform period known as the Tanzimat; and the nature of “tzarism” and its strategy of state-building and political integration. Students are encouraged to think comparatively of the main features of the Habsburg, Russian and Ottoman empires, and to evaluate the impact of massive population shifts on the region’s mixed ethnic map, and the influence of Western models of government on the region’s development. Class three focuses on the social origins of politics in the post-Ottoman nation-states in the Balkans, and on patterns of modernization and typologies of nationalism in Central European states until World War One.

Class four discusses the Fin-de-Siècle cultural revolt in Vienna and Budapest and the crisis of liberalism, regarded as a cultural paradigm emblematic for modernity in Central Europe. The class will be held at the Hungarian National Gallery, Budapest. Class five turns to the empires’ successor states during the inter-war period, as they struggled to consolidate new national states in a multi-national region. It focuses on ideological debates, the rise of fascism and the collapse of the inter-war experiment in nation-building. Class six discusses migration, ethnic cleansing and population transfers in Central Europe, from a historical perspective. It also explores the recent wave of academic interest in the study of the history of the Holocaust in Central Europe, focusing on new methodological and theoretical perspectives. The first part of the course concludes with three classes (seven and eight) on the nature of communist regimes in Central Europe, the history of dissident movements, gender relations and demographic policies, and the wave of democratic revolutions in 1989.


Part Two (classes thirteen to twenty-four) provides an overview of a number of contemporary issues facing Central Europe, drawing on literature from international relations, political science, and social anthropology. In class thirteen, we return to our initial discussion of the concept of Central Europe to examine the political implications of this term in the 1990s. In class fourteen and fifteen, we explore issues relating to societal security in the Balkans, and the continental and global implications of the Western military intervention in the recent Balkan wars resulting in the dissolution of Yugoslavia. Classes sixteen to twenty consider major dimensions of post-socialist transformation in Central Europe, such as political democratization and economic decentralization, privatization, property restitution and de-collectivization, from a comparative and relational perspective. Class twenty-two and twenty-three considers basic issues relating to the recent enlargement of the European Union to five new Central European states. The course concludes with a discussion of the lessons learned from scholars of the process of Central Europe transformations in the 1990s. We will consider questions such as: Why did some states abandon socialism for democracy, while others turned to authoritarian rule? How might the theoretical and conceptual insights of comparative politics explain this variation? Is “transition”, and perhaps “Eastern Europe” as an area of study, indeed over?

The reading materials are chosen to illustrate a variety of issues: national, socio-political, cultural and intellectual. They are represented by articles, chapters from textbooks, monographs and historical documents. In addition to the assigned reading materials, the course syllabus also provides a list of suggested further readings for each class, and general bibliographical guidelines on the comparative history and contemporary politics of Central Europe. Students will not be tested on the suggested readings.

In order to familiarize introduce students to cultural life in Budapest, beside regular course work, students will be taken to guided visits to two museums, the Hungarian National Gallery, in order to explore the evolution of the Hungarian art  during the nineteenth and the early twentieth centuries, and the “House of Terror” Museum, documenting political repression during the fascist and communist regime in Hungary.


Part One:
History and Culture of Central Europe, 1815-1989

Class One:

Central Europe, Eastern  Europe, and the Balkans:
Symbolic Geographies and the Historical Regions of Europe

Assigned Readings:
George Schöpflin, “Introduction,” and “Central Europe: Definitions Old and New,” in George Schöpflin and Nancy Wood, eds., In Search of Central Europe. Totowa, NJ: Barnes and Noble, 1989, pp. 1-3, 7-29. [save pdf]
Maria Todorova, “Between Classification and Politics: The Balkans and the Myth of Central Europe,” in Imagining the Balkans. London: Oxford University Press, 1997, pp. 140-160. [save pdf]

Suggested Readings: 
Friedrich Naumann, Central Europe. With an introduction by W. J. Ashley. Translated by Christabel M. Meredith. London: P.S. King, 1917.
Jenö Szűcs, “The three historical regions of Europe: an outline,” in John Keane, ed, Civil Society and the State. New European Paradigms, London: Verso, 1988, pp. 291-332.
Maria Todorova, “The Balkans: From Discovery to Invention,” Slavic Review 53 (1994) 2, pp. 453-482.
Larry Wolff, Inventing Eastern Europe: The Map of Civilization on the Mind of the Enlightenment. Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press, 1994, pp. 1-16.
László Kontler, “Introduction: Reflections on Symbolic Geography,” in “Central Europe: Ten Years After” (Thematic Issue), European Review of History, 6 (Spring 1999), 1, pp. 9-15.

Class Two:
Empires and the Awakening of South-East European Nationalities: The Ottoman Empire

Assigned Readings:
Kemal H. Karpat, “The Balkan National States and Nationalism: Image and Reality,” Islamic Studies 36 (1997), pp. 82-104. [save pdf]
Paschalis M. Kitromilides, “Imagined Communities and the Origins of the National Questions in the Balkans,” in M. Blinkhorn and Th. Veremis, eds., Modern Greece. Nationalism and Nationality. Athens: Sage-Eliamep, 1990, pp. 23-66.

Further Bibliography:
Ronald Grigor Suny, “The Empire Strikes Out: Imperial Russia, ‘National’ Identity,’ and Theories of Empire,” in Ronald Suny and Terry Martin, eds., A State of Nations. Empire and Nation-Making in the Age of Lenin and Stalin. New York: Oxford University Press, 2001, pp. 23-66. [save pdf]
Braude, Benjamin, “Foundation myths of the millet system,” in Benjamin Braude and Bernard Lewis, eds., Christians and Jews in the Ottoman Empire. The Functioning of a Plural Society. New York and London: Holmes & Meier Publisher, 1982, Vol. 1, pp. 70-75.
Kemal H. Karpat, “Millets and Nationality: The Roots of the Incongruity of Nation and State in the Post-Ottoman Era,” in Braude and Lewis, Christians and Jews in the Ottoman Empire, Vol. 1, pp. 141-169.

Class Three:
Empires and the Awakening of Central European Nationalities: The Habsburg Empire

Assigned Readings
Ignác Romsics, “The Hungarian State and the Habsburg Empire” in Hungary in the Twentieth Century, Budapest: Corvina, Osiris, pp. 9-17. [save pdf]
András Gerő, “Politics and National Minorities, 1848-9” in Modern Hungarian Society in the Making: The Unfinished Experience. Translated by James Patterson and Enikő Koncz. Budapest: CEU Press, 1995, pp. 92-105. [save pdf]
Péter Hanák, “The Period of Absolutism and Dualism,” in One Thousand Years – A Thousand Years of Hungary, pp. 122-169. [save pdf]

Further Bibliography:
Robin Okey, “Liberalism and Nationalism” in The Habsburg Monarchy: From Enlightenment to Eclipse, New York: St. Martin's Press, 2001, pp. 99-126.
István Deák, Lawful Revolution: Louis Kossuth and the Hungarians, 1848-1849. New York: Columbia University Press, 1979.

Class Four:
Nation-States and Nationalism in Pre-World War One Central Europe
Assigned Readings:
Peter F. Sugar, “External and Domestic Roots of Eastern European Nationalism,” in Peter F. Sugar and Ivo J. Lederer, eds., Nationalism in Eastern Europe. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1969, pp. 3-54. [save pdf]
Gale Stokes, “The Social Origins of East European Politics,” in Daniel Chirot, (ed.) The Origins of Backwardness in Eastern Europe: Economics and Politics from the Middle Ages Until the Early Twentieth Century. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1989, pp. 210-251. [save pdf]

Further Bibliography:
Constantin Iordachi, “The Unyielding Boundaries of Citizenship: The Emancipation of ‘Non-Citizens’ in Romania, 1866-1918,” European Review of History 8 (August 2001) 2, pp. 157-186.
Peter F. Sugar (ed.), Eastern European Nationalism in the Twentieth Century. Washington, D.C.: American University Press, 1995.
Robin Okin, “To World War and Collapse,” in The Habsburg Monarchy, pp. 363-401.

Class Five:
Cultural Revolt and the Crisis of Liberalism around 1900

Assigned Readings:
Carl E. Schorske, “Introduction,” and “Politics and the Psyché: Schnitzler and Hofmannsthal,” in Fin-de-Siècle Vienna: Politics and Culture, New York: Vintage Books, 1981, pp. 3-23. [savepdf]
Péter Hanák, “The Garden and the Workshop: Reflections on Fin-de-siècle Culture in Vienna and Budapest,” in The Garden and the Workshop. Essays on the Cultural History of Vienna and Budapest. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1998, pp. 63-97. [savepdf]

    Note: The class will be held at the Hungarian National Gallery, Budapest.

Further Bibliography:
John Neubauer, The Fin-de-Siècle Culture of Adolescence. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1992.
Mikulás Teich and Roy Porter, eds., Fin-de-Siècle and its Legacy. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1993.
Sally Ledger and Scott McCracken, ed., Cultural Politics at the Fin-de-Siècle. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995.
Sander L. Gilman, The Case of Sigmund Freud: Medicine and Identity at the Fin-de-Siècle. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1993.
Shearer West, Fin-de-Siècle: Art and Society in an Age of Uncertainty. Woodstock, N.Y.: Overlook Press, 1994.

Class Six:
Interwar Central Europe: Ideological Conflicts and the Rise of Fascism

Assigned Readings:
Roger Griffin, “The Abortive Fascist Movements in Inter-war Europe,” in The Nature of Fascism, London: Pinter Publishers, 1991, pp. 116-145. [savepdf]
Roger Griffin, “Romania” and “Hungary” in Fascism, pp. 169-170, 219-226. [savepdf]
Constantin Iordachi, “Charisma, Religion, Ideology: Romania’s Interwar Legion of the Archangel Michael”, in John R. Lampe and Mark Mazower (eds.), Ideologies and National Identities: The Case of Twentieth-Century Southeastern Europe, Budapest, New York: CEU Press, 2004, p. 19-53. [savepdf]
Further Bibliography:
Emilio Gentile, “The Sacralisation of Politics: Definitions, Interpretations and Reflections on the Question of Secular Religion and Totalitarianism,” Totalitarian Movements and Political Religion, 1 (2000) 1, pp. 1-23.
Emilio Gentile, “Fascism as Political Religion,” Journal of Contemporary History, 25 (May-June 1990) 2/3, pp. 229-251.
R. J. Crampton, “The Inter-war Years: An Introductory Survey,” and “Ideological Currents in the Inter-war Period,” in Eastern Europe in the Twentieth Century – And After. New York: Routledge, 1997, pp. 31-38, 152-176.

Class Seven:
Migration, Ethnic Cleansing and Population Transfers

Assigned Readings:
Paul Robert Magocsi, “Population Movements, 1944-1948,” in Historical Atlas of East Central Europe. Seattle, London: University of Washington Press, 1993, pp. 164-168. [savepdf]
Dariusz Stola, “Forced Migrations in Central European History,” International Migration Review 26 (Summer 1992) 2, 324-341. [savepdf]
Jan T. Gross, The Destruction of the Jewish Community in Jedwabne, Poland. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2001, pp. 3-22, 138-173. [savepdf]

Further Bibliography:
Michael Marrus, R. The Unwanted. European Refugees in the Twentieth Century. New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1985.
Randolph L. Braham, “The Uniqueness of the Holocaust in Hungary” in Randolph L.Braham and Béla Vago eds.. The Holocaust in Hungary. Forty Years Later. New York: Distributed by Columbia University Press, 1985, pp. 177-190.
Deletant, Dennis, “The Holocaust in Transnistria: An Overview in the Light of Recent Research”, în Rebecca Haynes, ed., Moldova Bessarabia, Transnistria,. Occasional Papers in Romanian Studies, Nr. 3, School of Slavonic and East European Studies. London: University College London, 2003, pp. 143–161.
Raul Hilberg, The Destruction of the European Jews. 3 Vols. Chicago: Quadrangle Books, 1961. New York: Watts, 1973.

Class Eight:
Communism and Stalinism in Eastern Europe, 1944-1956

Assigned Readings:
Jan Gross, “The Social Consequences of War: Preliminaries for the Study of the Imposition of Communist Regimes in East Central Europe,” East European Politics and Societies 3 (1989), pp.  198-214. [savepdf]
R. J. Crampton, “East European Stalinism, 1948-1953,” and “The Retreat from Stalinism, 1953-1956,” in Eastern Europe in the Twentieth Century, pp. 255-274. [savepdf]

We will watch extracts from:
Freedom's Fury (2006). Directed by Volin K. Gray and Megan Raney. A documentary on the 1956 Hungarian Revolution and the Olympic semifinal water polo match between Hungary and Soviet Union.

Further Bibliography:
Czesław Miłosz, The Captive Mind. New York: Vintage, 1981.
Gale Stokes, Doc. 7: “Stalinists;” Doc. 9: “The expulsion of Yugoslavia;” Doc. 10-11: “The Purge Trials” in From Stalinism to Pluralism. A Documentary History of Eastern Europe Since 1945. 2nd ed. New York, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1996, pp. 44-50, 58-77.
George Hodos, Show Trials: Stalinist Purges in Eastern Europe, 1948-1954. New York: Praeger, 1987.
Kenneth Jowitt, Revolutionary Breakthroughs and National Development: The Case of Romania, 1944-1965. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1971.
Robert King, Minorities Under Communism. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1973.

Class Nine:
Totalitarianism, Violence and Repression

Visit to the “House of Terror” Museum, Budapest.

Class Ten:
Gender Relations and Politics of Reproduction under Communism

Assigned Readings:
Gail Kligman, The Politics of Duplicity: Controlling Reproduction in Ceausescu’s Romania (Berkeley: University of California Press 1998), pp. 1-41.
We will watch extracts from Florin Iepan, Children of the Decree (2005). [save pdf]

Further Bibliography:
Susan Gal and Gail Kligman, The Politics of Gender after Socialism: A Comparative-Historical Essay. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Class Eleven:
Dissent, Reforms, and the End of Communism, 1956-1989

Assigned Readings:
Katherine Verdery, “What was socialism and why did it fall?,” in What Was Socialism, and What Comes Next? Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1996, pp. 19-38. [savepdf]
Daniel Chirot, “What Happened in Eastern Europe in 1989?,” in Vladimir Tismăneanu, ed., The Revolutions of 1989. London: Routledge, 1999, pp. 19-50. [savepdf]

Further Bibliography:
Gale Stokes, Docs. 38-43, in From Stalinism to Pluralism, pp. 224-253.
Adam Michnik. Letters from Prison and Other Essays. Berkeley: UC Press, 1985. ix-98.
Cliff Lewis and Carroll Britch, “Light Out of Poland: Wajda’s Man of Marble and Man of Iron,” Film and History 12 (Dec. 1982) 4, pp. 82-89.
György Konrad, Antipolitics. New York: Holt, 1984.
Katherine Verdery, “The ‘Etatization’ of Time in Ceausescu’s Romania,” in What Was Socialism, pp. 39-57.

Class Twelve:
Nationalism, Violence, and External Intervention in Central Europe

Assigned Reading:
Benjamin Miller and Korina Kagan, “The Great Power and Regional Conflicts: Eastern Europe and the Balkans from the Post-Napoleonic Era to the Post-Cold War Era,” International Studies Quarterly (1997) 41, pp. 51-85. [save pdf]
Charles Ingrao, “Understanding Ethnic Conflict in Central Europe: An Historical Perspective,” Nationalities Papers 27 (June 1999) 2, pp. 291-318, 331-332. [savepdf]
Mark Mazover, “On Violence,” in The Balkans. A Short History. New York: The Modern Library, 2001, pp. 128-135. [save pdf]

Recommended readings:
Daalder, Ivo and Michael O'Hanlon, Winning Ugly: NATO's War to Save Kosovo. Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution Press, pp. 63-100.
Kaplan, Robert, “Prologue: Saints, Terrorists, Blood, and Holy Water” in Balkan Ghosts: A Journey Through History. London: Macmillan Publishers, 1994: xiv-xxvii.
The Other Balkan Wars: A 1913 Carnegie Endowment Inquiry in Retrospect, with a new introduction and reflections on the present conflict by George F. Kennan. New York: Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, 1993, pp. 1-15.

Part II:
Contemporary Politics of Central Europe

Class Thirteen:
Where is “Central Europe” Now?
Evolution (and Death) of the Concept in the 1990s

Required Readings:
Timothy Garton Ash, “Where is Central Europe Now?” History of the Present. London: Penguin Books, 1999, pp. 383-397. [ pdf]
Iver Neumann, “Forgetting the Central Europe of the 1980s” in Central Europe: Core or Periphery?” ed. Christopher Lord. Copenhagen: Handelshøjskolens Forlag, 2000, pp. 207-218. [ pdf]
Maria Todorova, “Isn’t Central Europe Dead? A Response to Iver Neumann’s ‘Forgetting the Central Europe of the 1980s” in Central Europe: Core or Periphery?” ed. Christopher Lord. Copenhagen: Handelshøjskolens Forlag, 2000, pp. 219 -231. [savepdf]

Recommended Readings:
Maria Todorova, “Between Classification and Politics: The Balkans and the Myth of Central Europe” in Imagining the Balkans. London: Oxford University Press, 1997, pp. 140-160. [savepdf]
Iver Neumann, “Making Regions: Central Europe” in Uses of the Other: ‘The East’ in European Identity Formation. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1999.
Valerie Bunce, “The Visegrad Group: Regional Cooperation and European Integration in Post-Communist Europe” in Peter Katzenstein, ed., Mitteleuropa: Between Europe and Germany. Providence: Berghahn Books, 1997.

Class Fourteen:
The Death of Yugoslavia

Assigned Readings:
Jovic, Dejan. “The Disintegration of Yugoslavia A Critical Review of Explanatory Approaches,” European Journal of Social Theory (Feb. 2001), Vol. 4 Issue 1, p. 101-121. [pdf]

Andrew Baruch Wachtel. Making a nation, breaking a nation: Literature and cultural politics in Yugoslavia. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1998. [pdf]

Recommended readings:
Gojko Vuckovic, Ethnic cleavages and conflict: the sources of national cohesion and disintegration : the case of Yugoslavia Aldershot, Hants, England : Ashgate, c1997
Sabrina P. Ramet, Balkan Babel: The disintegration of Yugoslavia from the death of Tito to the fall of Milošević. Boulder, Colo.: Westview Press, 2002.
Andrew C. Janos, Czechoslovakia and Yugoslavia: ethnic conflict and the dissolution of multinational states. Berkeley: International and Area Studies, University of California at Berkeley, 1997.
Sabrina P. Ramet. The three Yugoslavias: state-building and legitimation, 1918-2005 Bloomington: Indiana University Press; Washington, D.C. : Woodrow Wilson Center Press, 2005.
Payam Akhavan, General editor, Robert Howse, Contributing editor. Yugoslavia, the former and future: reflections by scholars from the region. Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution, 1995

Class Fifteen:
Balkan Security: New Threats and Challenges

Assigned Readings:
Susan L. Woodward, Balkan Tragedy: Chaos and Dissolution after the Cold War. Washington D.C.: Brookings Institution Press, 1995, pp. 47-81. [ pdf]
Spyros Economides, “Balkan Security: What Security? Whose Security?” Journal of Southeast European & Black Sea Studies, 3 (Sept. 2003) 3, pp. 105-129. [ pdf]

Recommended readings:
Samantha Power, “Bosnia: ‘No More than Witnesses at a Funeral” in ‘A Problem from Hell’: America and the Age of Genocide. New York: Perennial, 2002.
Ivo Daalder and Michael O'Hanlon. Winning Ugly: NATO's War to Save Kosovo. Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution Press, pp. 63-100.
Ken Booth (ed.), New Thinking about Strategy and International Security. London: Harper Collins, 1991.
Ole Waever, et al., Identity, Migration and the New Security Agenda in Europe. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1993.
Barry Buzan, Ole Waever, Jaap de Wilde, Security: A New Framework for Analysis. Boulder: Lynne Rienner, 1998.

Class Sixteen:
“Norms and Nannies”: The Role of International Organizations in CEE

Required Readings:
Frank Schimmelfennig. “Introduction: The Impact of International Organizations on the Central and East European State: Conceptual and Theoretical Issues” in Ronald Linden, ed. Norms and Nannies: The Impact of International Organizations on the Central and East European States. New York: Rowman and Littlefield, 2002, pp. 1-32. [ pdf]

Janine Wedel. “Chapter 1: East Meets West: A New Order for the Second World” in Collision and Collusion: The Strange Case of Western Aid to Eastern Europe, 1989-1998. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1999, pp. 1-15. [ pdf]

Recommended Readings:
Sarah Mendelson and John Glenn, eds. The Power and Limits of NGOs: A Critical Look at Building Democracy in Eastern Europe and Eurasia. New York: Columbia University Press, 2002.

Jacques Rupnik, “Eastern Europe: The International Context” Journal of Democracy 12 (2000), pp. 115-129.

Branka Likić-Brborić. “Globalization, Governance and the Political Economy of Transition.” In Carl-Ulrik Schierup, ed., Scramble for the Balkans: Nationalism, Globalism and the Political Economy of Reconstruction. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1999.

Class Seventeen:
Post-socialist Transformations: The Case of Hungary

Required Readings:
Bruszt, László, “1989: The Negotiated Revolution in Hungary” in András Bozóki, András Körösényi, and George Schöpflin, eds. Post-communist Transition: Emerging Pluralism in Hungary. London: Pinter Publishers, 1992, pp. 45-59. [pdf]
Gy. Matolcsy, “Hungary’s Debt,” in Schmidt, Mária and László Gy. Tóth, eds, From Totalitarian to Democratic Hungary: Evolution and Transformation, 1990-2000. Boulder, Colo.: Social Science Monographs; New York: Columbia University Press, 2000, pp. 232-266.  [pdf]

Recommended readings:
Gáspár Miklós Tamás, “Victory Defeated.” Journal of Democracy 10 (1999), pp. 63-68.
Burawoy, Michael and Katherine Verdery, “Introduction,” in Uncertain Transition: Ethnographies of Change in the Postsocialist World. New York: Rowman and Littlefield, 1999, pp. 1-17.
Kovács, János Mátyás, “Praising the Hybrids: Notes on Economic Thought Ten Years After” East European Politics and Societies 13(1999), pp. 315-325.
Orenstein, Mitchell, “Strategies for Transformation” in Out of the Red: Building Capitalism and Democracy in Postcommunist Europe. Ann Arbor, Michigan: University of Michigan Press, 2001, pp. 11-24.
Schmidt, Mária and László Gy. Tóth, eds, From Totalitarian to Democratic Hungary: Evolution and Transformation, 1990-2000. Boulder, Colo.: Social Science Monographs; New York: Columbia University Press, 2000.

Class Eighteen:
Property and Privatization Methods in Post-Communist Central Europe

Required Readings:
David Stark, and László Bruszt, Postsocialist pathways: transforming politics and property in East Central Europe. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1998. [ pdf]

Roman Frydman, Andrzej Rapaczynski, John S. Earle et al. The Privatization process in Central Europe: economic environment, legal and ownership structure, institutions for state regulation, overview for privatization programs, initial transformation of enterprises, Budapest: CEU Press, 1993, pp. 55-147, 210-257. [pdf]

Recommended readings:
Hella Engerer, Privatization and its limits in Central and Eastern Europe: Property Rights in Transition. New York: Palgrave, 2001.

Bennett, John, et. al, Privatization methods and economic growth in transition economies. London: Centre for Economic Policy Research, 2004.

Chilosi, Alberto, Property and management privatization in Eastern European transition: Economic consequences of alternative privatization processes. Florence: European University Institute, 1994.

Class Nineteen:
Decollectivization and the Privatization of Land in Post-Communist Central Europe

Erik Mathijs, “An historical overview of Central and Eastern European land reform,” in Johan F.M. Swinnen, Allan Buckwell, Erik Mathijs, eds.,  Agricultural privatisation, land reform and farm restructuring in Central and Eastern Europe. Aldershot, England: Ashgate, 1997, pp. 33-54. [save pdf]

Zvi Lerman, Csaba Csaki, Gershon Feder, eds., Agriculture in transition: land policies and evolving farm structures in post-Soviet countries. Lanham, MD : Lexington Books, 2004, pp. 61-104. [save pdf]

Class Twenty:
Reports on Term Papers: Student Presentations

Class Twenty-one:
Post-socialist Transformation: Lessons Learned

Assigned Readings:
Valerie Bunce, “Rethinking Recent Democratization: Lessons from the Postcommunist Experience,” World Politics 55 (January 2003) 2, pp. 167-192. [savepdf]

Thomas Carothers, “The End of the Transition Paradigm,” Journal of Democracy 13 (2002), pp. 5-21. [savepdf]

Saxonberg Steven and Janos Linde, “Beyond the Transitology-Area Studies Debate,” Problems of Postcommunism, 50 (May/June 2003) 3, pp. 3-16. [ pdf]

Recommended Readings:
Gans Mrse Jordan, “Searching for Transitologists: Contemporary Theories of Post-Communist Transitions and the Myth of a Dominant Paradigm,” Post-Soviet Affairs, 20 (2004) 4, 320-349.

Ivan Krastev, “The Balkans: Democracy Without Choices,” Journal of Democracy, 13 (July 2002), 3, p. 39-53.

Jeffrey Kopstein and David A. Reilly, “Geographic Diffusion and the Transformation of the Postcommunist World,” World Politics 53 (October 2000) 1, pp. 1-37.

Michael McFaul, “The Fourth Wave of Democracy and Dictatorship: Noncooperative Transitions in the Postcommunist World,” World Politics 54 (January 2002), pp. 212-44.

Class Twenty-two:
Back to Europe: Central Europe and the EU’s Eastern Enlargement

Required Readings:
Valerie Bunce, “The Visegrád Group: Regional Cooperation and European Integration in Post-Communist Europe,” in Peter Katzenstein, ed., Mitteleuropa: Between Europe and Germany. Providence: Berghahn Books, 1997, pp. 240-284. [ pdf]

Heather Grabbe and Kirsty Huges, “Central and east European views on the EU enlargement: political debates and public opinion,” in Karen Henderson, ed., Back to Europe: Central and Eastern Europe and the EU. London: University College London Press, 1999, pp. 185-202. [ pdf]

Recommended readings:
Grabbe, Heather, “The Sharp Edges of Europe: Extending Schengen Eastwards” International Affairs 76 (2000), pp. 519-536.

McFaul, Michael. “The Fourth Wave of Democracy and Dictatorship: Noncooperative Transitions in the Postcommunist World,” World Politics 54 (January 2002), pp. 212-244.

Class Twenty-three:
The Politics, Impact and Challenges of EU Accession

Required Readings:
Grzegorz Ekiert, Jan Zielonka, “Introduction: Academic Boundaries and Path Dependencies facing the EU’s Eastward Enlargement,” East European Politics and Societies, 17 (February 2003) 1, pp. 7-23. [savepdf]

David R. Cameron, “The Challenges of Accession,” East European Politics and Societies, 17 (February 2003) 1, pp. 24-41. [savepdf]

Recommended Readings:
Slavenka Drakulić, “A Trip Back to Europe,” in Christopher Lord, ed. Copenhagen: Handelshøjskolens Forlag, 2000, pp. 235-242.

Harris Geoffrey, “The Democratic Dimension of EU Enlargement: The Role of Parliament and Public Opinion,” in Ronald Linden, ed. Norms and Nannies: The Impact of International Organizations on the Central and East European States. New York: Rowman and Littlefield, 2002, pp. 1-32.

Class Twenty-four:
Conclusions: Studying Central Europe From a Global Perspective

Please consult the general bibliography for the course as well.